Carbon Calculator – Town& Gown Institute of Innovation for the Future, Hiroshima University 

Carbon Calculator

Objective & Background information

The purpose of this carbon calculator is to offer a precise and detailed comparison of CO2 emissions between air travel and high-speed railway (HSR) usage for journeys within Japan.

It has been specifically developed for the research study titled "Assessing the understanding and willingness to pay (WTP) for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF): Information treatment in a choice experiment".

It utilizes a comprehensive dataset to provide detailed insights into carbon emissions related to transportation methods. The following data sources have been incorporated into the calculator's computation:

1. Rail/HST data: Nationwide railway data (stations, distances, speeds, fares price, total passenger volume*, fuel used*)

  • Open street map data
  • Railway Statistics Annual Report by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport & Tourism (MLIT)

3. Air data: Domestic airline routes data (aircraft type, routes, ticket price during peak season, load factor*)

  • OAG data, BADA aircraft performance data
  • Carbon calculator (Mason and Miyoshi, 2007; Miyoshi, 2014)
  • Google flight average fare data

4. Energy statistics

  • 2019's Energy Statistics and Balances data

5. Airport Access and Egress data

  • Detailed infromation on each domestic airport bus route obtained from official airport website

6.Bus emission data

  • MLIT's computated CO2 emissions per capita for buses in 2019

How to Use

  1. Step1: Place the starting point pin icon to your departing location
  2. Step2: Place the arrival point pin icon to your arrival location
  3. Step3: Click the "Calculate" button to start your route calculation


This calculator currently only supports the followings conditions:

  • 1. None remote islands location
  • 2. Departing location must be within one of the following prefectures:
Hokkaido Miyagi Niigata Tokyo
Chiba Saitama Kanagawa Shizuoka
Aichi Kyoto Osaka Hyogo
Okayama Hiroshima Fukuoka Kumamoto

Start :

End :

Train Airplane
Routes map
Distance traveled [km] [km]
Travel time
CO2 emissions per person [kg] [kg]
Number of cedars needed to absorb emitted CO2 🌲 trees'worth 🌲 trees'worth
CO2 emissions per km [kg/km] [kg/km]
No. of transits About times About times
Average price (round trip) About JPY 0 About JPY 0
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